http://vimeo.com/17600886
Relevant Background Information: Bandura Ross and Ross 1961/Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models.


Aim: The aim was to demonstrate that if children were passive witnesses to and aggressive display by an adult they would imitate this aggressive behavior when given the opportunity.


Participant Group: 72 boys and girls from Standford University Nursery School
*Aggressive Group- 24 children witnessed an adult being aggressive to a Bobo doll
*Non-Aggressive Group- 24 children observed an adult playing and ignoring a Bobo doll
*Control Group- 24 participants not witnessing anything
*Even further from that the participants were split up with a same sex model and some with a not same sex model


Research Method (Case Study, experiment, etc.): IV- aggressive/non aggressive model, sex of model, sex of child.
DV- imitative learning
*Laboratory study.


How was data collected?: Quantitative Data and the way they collected the Quantitative Data was they recorded each time the children were aggressive or non aggressive and if they imitated the model or not and the amount of times they did or did not. Those recording the data were two independent observers behind a one way mirror.


Procedure: Each participant was taken into the room and played in one corner with toys and playing, while in the other corner the adult is either playing nicely or aggressively with the Bobo doll.


Special Equipment/materials?: The Bobo doll, toys, mallet, gun


Results: The children with the aggressive model made more aggressive actions than the children with the non aggressive model.
Boys were more aggressive than the girls
Boys showed to be more aggressive when they had a male model opposed to having a female model
The girls showed more physical aggression if the model was male and female but the girls showed more verbal aggression if the model was female


Conclusions (based off results): Male model fit the stereotype, boys follow the aggression of the male model, whether or not they child imitates the model is based on the child's development of his or her gender identity


Strentghts: Can be easily replicated
Quantitative Data


Weaknesses: Low Ecological Validity
Snap Shot Data


Ecological Validity: Low


Ethics: Some questioning of the ethics

Past Exam Questions:
1
In Bandura’s study on aggression, the researchers observed the “imitative aggression” (copying behaviour of the model) and the “non-imitative aggression” of the children.




(a)
Give one example of imitative aggression and oneexample of non-imitative aggression in the study.
[2]



(b)
Why did the researchers look at both types of aggression?
[2]

1996








2
The introduction to the study of Bandura, Ross and Ross (transmission of aggression) includes fourpredictions (hypotheses)





Give one of these predictions.
[2]




Evaluate whether the results of the study support this prediction.
[2]

1997








3
All studies present some ethical issues to consider. Outline two ethical issues raised by the study by Bandura, Ross and Ross into the imitation of aggressive behaviour.
[4]

1998








4
All studies present some ethical issues to consider. Outline two ethical issues raised by the study by Bandura, Ross & Ross into the imitation of aggressive behaviour.
[4]

2000








5
In the study by Bandura, Ross and Ross on aggression, the researchers used a “matched pairs” experimental design

(a)
How were the children matched in this study?
[2]



(b)
Why were the children matched in this study?
[2]

January 2001








6
(a)
Identify one ethical guideline that was broken in the study by Bandura Ross and Ross
[2]



(b)
What justification can you make for breaking this guideline?
[2]

Sample 2000








7
(a)
In Bandura’s study, the boys made more aggressive acts than did the girls. Suggest two possible reasons for this.
[2]



(b)
Identify and explain one factor that might affect how far we can generalise the findings of this study
[2]

Sample 2000








8
Some psychologists argue that behaviour is learned through imitation. From the study by Bandura, Ross and Ross on the imitation of aggression:




(a)
Give two examples of behaviours that were imitated by the children
[2]



(b)
Suggest one implication for society if children do learn by imitation
[2]

June 2001








9


(a)
In stage two of the Bandura, Ross and Ross study on aggression, outline how the children were subjected to mild arousal of aggression.
[2]



(b)
Why was this necessary?
[2]

May 2002





10
From the study by Bandura, Ross and Ross on the imitation of aggression:




(a)
Give two of the types of behaviour (the response categories) that the observers looked for when they observed the children.
[2]



(b)
Describe how Bandura, Ross and Ross checked the reliability of their observations.
[2]

January 2003




11
Outline one ethical issue raised by Bandura, Ross and Ross's study on aggression
[2]

May 2003


12
Give two findings from the study on aggression by Bandura, Ross and Ross.
[4]

January 2004


13
From the study on aggression by Bandura, Ross and Ross:

(a)
identify two of the categories of aggression that were measured:
[2]
(b)
outline the finding of one of these categories
[2]

May 2004





15
Outline how the children's pre-existing levels of aggression were measured in the study by Bandura, Ross and Ross.
[2]

May 2005





16
(a) Explain how one control was used in the study on aggression by Bandura, Ross and Ross.
(b) Suggest one reason why it is difficult to generalise from the findings of this study to aggression outside the laboratory.
[2]

[2]

January 2006








17
From the study by Bandura, Ross and Ross on aggression, explain why a one-way mirror was used to observe the children.
[2]

May 2006











18
Explain how the evidence from the study by Bandura, Ross and Ross could support the nurture view of aggression.
[2]

January 2007




  • Relevant Background Information
    • Behaviorist Approach (Behaviorist “conditioning”)
      • We learn by doing things ourselves
      • Learning is understood by observing visible processes
      • We learn only behavior that is reinforced
    • Social Learning Approach
      • We learn by watching others do things
      • We need to study invisible mental processes- behavior is internalized
      • We can learn without reinforcement
  • Aim
    • The aim of Bandura's study was to demonstrate that if children were passive witnesses to an aggressive display by an adult they would imitate this aggressive behavior when given the opportunity.
  • Participant Group
    • 36 boys
    • 36 girls
    • Aged 3-6 (mean 4 years, 4 months
  • Research Method
    • Laboratory experiment at Standford University nursery school
    • Matched on levels of aggression (based on observation by teachers)
    • Matched Pairs design
  • How data was collected
    • Children were observed by two independent observers through a one-way mirror.
  • What type of data was collected
    • Qualitative
    • Quantitative
  • Procedure
    • Three Conditions
      • Children witness an aggressive model (adult being aggressive to a bobo doll)
        • Physical- hit with mallet, threw in air, sat on it
        • Verbal- “Pow!” “Sock it to him”
        • Sequence repeated 3 times over 9 minutes
      • Children witness a non-aggressive model (adult playing and ignoring a bobo doll)
      • Control group (no model)
    • In some conditions the model is male, in some female
    • IV: Aggressive/Non-aggressive model; sex of model; sex of child
    • DV: Imitative learning (eg. aggressive behavior)
    • After 10 minutes participants taken to arousal room in groups of 6
    • Shown attractive toys
    • Taken to observation room with a variety of non-aggressive toys (crayons) and aggressive toys (dart gun and 3ft Bobo doll)
    • 20 minutes in room- observed through 1-way mirror
    • 2 observers- inter-rater reliability
    • Responses recorded every 5 seconds
  • Special equipment/materials
    • Bobo doll
    • Crayons
    • Dart gun
  • Results- Three observations observed; 1 imitation of psychological aggression, Imitative verbal aggression, Imitative non-aggressive verbal responses. The children in the aggressive model condition made more aggressive responses than the children in the non-aggressive model condition. Boys responded more aggressively than girls. The boys in the aggressive model conditions displayed more aggressive responses when the model was male. The girls in the aggressive model conditions also showed more physical aggressive responses if the model was male but more verbal aggressive responses if the model was male but more verbal aggressive responses if the model was female.
  • Conclusions- Children imitate aggression, boys more likely than girls. Also children are more likely to imitate if the model being imitated is the same gender.
  • Strengths, Weaknesses- Strengths: Experiment- helps to show cause effect relationship, Precise Control of variables, easily be replicated, Quantitative data, matched pairs design. Weaknesses: Low ecological validity (child and adult are strangers, no interaction between them). Snap-shot data, Was the behavior towards Bobo aggression or play (cant tell), Unethical towards the kids. There was a selection bias with the kids involved, only upper class white children.
  • Ethics- Unethical