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Wednesday, May 16

  1. page Dematte, Osterbauer and Spence - Period 2 edited ... Dematte and Kleitmen Osterbauer and Spence was an ... There were four five smells used…
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    Dematte and KleitmenOsterbauer and Spence was an
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    There were fourfive smells used
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    body odor, geraniumgeranium, clean air and rubber).
    New Methodology: Field Experiment. I chose this because I would like to see how smells affect attractiveness when they don't think anything of the smells. This would allow for a a natural setting and better results because these random people are not expecting any certain smells. This also allows for me to manipulate a few factors for the sake of results and the study while at the same time not controlling too many factors so that the results are skewed.
    Participant Group: Males and females are both going to be targeted when we seek out someone to observe. The mean ages are from children all the way to adults. We want a large variety of data that can be applied to different stages of human life. We will attempt to have at least 10 children. 10 teens, and 10 adults in order to get an array of each age group while also balancing male and females 5 and 5.
    ...
    the process). OUrOur volunteer was
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    their response. After the study we had each participant fill out a scale rating the person they encountered on a scale from 1 to 10 with 1 being the ugliest and 10 being the best looking.
    Data: We
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    collecting qualitative and quantitative data. We
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    our pre-determined 45 smells. The
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    volunteer was. At the end of the study we gave each participant a rating scale to rate the volunteer they encountered on a scale of 1 to 10. 1 was considered the worse and 10 was considered the best.
    Conclusion: When
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    not (rubber, geranium).geranium, clean air). These results
    Debriefing: You have been deceived for the sake of this study. You were subjected to natural smells that you were unaware of their location and then approached our male or female volunteer who asked you a series of questions in which you answered just thinking he or she was hitting on you. You then answered their question on whether or not you thought they were attractive. That is where our research took place as we, (hidden in a van away form the park) recorded your answer and stored it to be put into our database for evaluation at the end of the study. We appreciate your time and cooperation with our study.
    Strengths: high ecological validity
    match pair for the participants each group (childhood, adolescences, and adulthood) had an even number of males and females
    Weakness: low control
    weak way of gathering data ethics
    Ethics: ethics were in question in this study with the deception as well as asking the volunteer asking the participant whether or not they were heterosexual.
    (view changes)
    4:59 am

Tuesday, May 15

  1. page Dematte, Osterbauer and Spence - Period 2 edited Relevant Background Information: Aim: Background: This study on smells and facial attractiveness…
    Relevant Background Information:
    Aim:
    Background: This study on smells and facial attractiveness by Dematte and Kleitmen was an experiment. It was conducted in a laboratory. This study was conducted to see whether or not smells affected facial attractiveness. There were four smells used (male fragrance, body odor, geranium and rubber). This study presented smells for a short period of time to see if that short period of time modulated any certain kind of attractiveness.
    New Methodology: Field Experiment. I chose this because I would like to see how smells affect attractiveness when they don't think anything of the smells. This would allow for a a natural setting and better results because these random people are not expecting any certain smells. This also allows for me to manipulate a few factors for the sake of results and the study while at the same time not controlling too many factors so that the results are skewed.

    Participant Group:
    Research Method:
    How was data collected:
    What type
    Males and females are both going to be targeted when we seek out someone to observe. The mean ages are from children all the way to adults. We want a large variety of data was collected:that can be applied to different stages of human life. We will attempt to have at least 10 children. 10 teens, and 10 adults in order to get an array of each age group while also balancing male and females 5 and 5.
    Procedure:
    Special
    Our male and/or female (whoever turn it was at the time) would approach someone who they thought was around one of the three stages of life we targeted and had assistance via a very discrete earpiece from one of our 3 researchers (hidden in a van away from the area we were at, watching on video, guiding them through the process). OUr volunteer was someone who we had come to us as a result to a job listing in order to participate in our study. Our volunteer male or female (not previously rated attractive or unattractive) would ask them when they were born and if they preferred men or woman. This allowed for us to know whether or not the participant was heterosexual. From there, our volunteer would proceed to act interested in this person while we would observe how the person reacted to the smell they encountered that particular time as well as their responses to our volunteer. We previously set up areas that contained one of our pre-determined 4 smells. The way we accomplished these previously set up areas is we went to the site we were going to be at the night before and planted certain smells in natural lying areas. For instance, one area was the trash can; here we planted the smell of rotten food, our second spot was underneath a bench where we placed a non conspicuous device that sprayed out the smell of gardenia flowers . The third spot was an area of flowers that we planted and put the same device in the soil that sprayed nothing but clean air. our fourth and final spot was the playground equipment / materials:
    Results:
    where we once again planted our device in which sprayed a female perfume. Our device sprayed out its specific smell every minute. We stayed in the same park throughout the entire study. We recorded the data by having our volunteer ask their final question as; do you think I am attractive. us researchers recorded their response.
    Data: We are collecting qualitative data. We are collecting our data off of our participants responses. We are recording the data by having our volunteer ask their final question as; do you think I am attractive. us researchers recorded their response. Our volunteer would act interested in the person while we would observe how the person reacted to the smell they encountered that particular time as well as their responses to our volunteer. We previously set up areas that contained one of our pre-determined 4 smells. The way we accomplished these previously set up areas is we went to the site we were going to be at the night before and planted certain smells in natural lying areas. This method is useful because we do not have to worry about numbers, instead we can focus on how the person responds to the smells and our volunteers questions. We are able to observe the participants in a natural way while also gathering data based on how attractive or unattractive they thought our volunteer was.

    Conclusion: When I do this study I expect to find out how smells in a natural, not set up (at least the participants do not know it is set up) environment affect or don't affect the attractiveness or unattractiveness of a person. I think that the results of this study will support the results of the original study, which stated; Ratings were not affected by whether the odor was body relevant (body odor, male fragrance) or not (rubber, geranium). These results support previous research. In my case, it would say that the responses to the volunteer were not affected by whether the odor was body relevant or not.
    Debriefing: You have been deceived for the sake of this study. You were subjected to natural smells that you were unaware of their location and then approached our male or female volunteer who asked you a series of questions in which you answered just thinking he or she was hitting on you. You then answered their question on whether or not you thought they were attractive. That is where our research took place as we, (hidden in a van away form the park) recorded your answer and stored it to be put into our database for evaluation at the end of the study. We appreciate your time and cooperation with our study.

    Strengths:
    Weaknesses:
    Ecological Validity:
    Ethics:
    high ecological validity
    match pair for the participants each group (childhood, adolescences, and adulthood) had an even number of males and females
    Weakness: low control
    weak way of gathering data
    Ethics: ethics were in question in this study with the deception as well as asking the volunteer asking the participant whether or not they were heterosexual.

    (view changes)
    6:17 pm

Monday, April 30

  1. page Dement and Kleitman Period 1 edited ... {http://psychology4a.com/biolog4.gif} Aim ... movements and REM with dreaming. Partici…
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    {http://psychology4a.com/biolog4.gif}
    Aim
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    movements and REM with dreaming.
    Participant Group
    The Participant group consisted of 9 people, with seven males and two females, although most of the information came from 5 of the participants. Data from the other four was used to back the findings of the main five.
    (view changes)
    6:21 pm
  2. page Baron-Cohen - Period 1 edited This Relevant background information- What is Autism? Autism is a brain disorder that often m…
    ThisRelevant background information-
    What
    is Autism?
    Autism is a brain disorder that often makes it hard to communicate with and relate to others. With autism,
    the spacedifferent areas of the brain fail to work together.
    Most people with autism will always have some trouble relating to others. But early diagnosis and treatment have helped more and more people who have autism to reach their full potential.
    Causes of Autism-
    Autism is thought to be inherited since it runs in families. Scientists however are still working to see which genes are responsible
    for informationpassing down autism in families. There are also studies being made to see whether autism can be caused by other medical problems or by something in your child’s surroundings. Some people think that childhood vaccines cause autism but studies haven’t shown this to be true.
    Aim-
    The main aim of this experiment was to investigate if high functioning adults with autism or Asperger syndrome would be impaired
    on Baron-Cohen's studya theory of mind test called the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task.’ The researchers were also interested to find out if females would be better than males on the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes TestTask’
    Research Method-
    Testing the participants also the method used is a natural or quasi experiment. Quasi experiments take advantage of conditions which occur naturally.
    How was data collected?
    The participants of the group had to look at a pair of eyes and choose from a number of options that the person was feeling. There was also a use of standardized procedure in the way the photographs were presented ensured that the researchers could claim with some certainty what there person was feeling.
    {Picture_3.png}
    What type of data was collected?
    The experiment collected quantitative data in the form of scores on the Eye Tasks.
    Procedure-
    There were participants with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. The participants were divided into three groups. Group 1 consisted of sixteen participants with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. They were all of normal intelligence. There were 13 men and 3 women. Group 2 consisted of fifty age-matched controls (25 male and 25 female) with no history of psychiatric disorder and presumed to be of normal intelligence. Group 3 consisted of ten participants with Tourette syndrome. These participants were also age matched with groups 1 and 2. There were eight men and two women, mirroring the sex ratio of group 1. They were all of normal intelligence.
    The Eyes Task, the Strange Stories Task, and the two control tasks were presented in random order, to all participants and they were tested individually in a quiet room either in their own home, in a researcher’s clinic, or at a lab at the University. The Eyes Task comprises of photographs of the eye region of 25 different male and female faces. The photographs were taken from magazines and were standardized in that they were all black and white, all from the same region of the face (from midway along the nose to just above the eyebrow) and all of the same size. Each picture was shown for three seconds and participants were given a forced choice question between two mental states printed under each picture. The Experimenter says to the subject" Which word best describes what this person is feeling or thinking?" The maximum score on this test is 25.
    Special equipment/materials?
    Pictures of the eyes.
    Results-
    As predicted high functioning adults with autism or Asperger syndrome did have more difficulties with the Eye Task than both ‘normal’ adults and adults with Tourette syndrome.
    {Picture_1.png}
    It was also found that ‘normal’ adult males had more difficulties with the Eye Task than ‘normal’ adult females.
    {Picture_2.png}
    On the Strange Stories Task none of the participants with Tourette syndrome made any mistakes whereas many of those participants with autism and Asperger syndrome had difficulties with this task.
    On the Gender and Emotion Control Tasks, there were no differences between the groups.
    Conclusions (based off of results)-
    Adults with autism or Asperger syndrome do have more difficulties with the Eye Task than both ‘normal’ adults and adults with Tourette syndrome.
    Strengths-
    The main strength of this experiment is the control of variables. Variables were controlled such as intelligence, sex and developmental disorders. The researchers were able to ensure that the differences between the scores of the three groups of participants were something to do with being autistic.
    Weaknesses-
    One of the weaknesses of the study is the ecological validity of the experiment. Some of the participants were tested at a lab in a University and this may have had an effect on performance. Probably more importantly the Eye Task test can be questioned as it is an unusual task which is much simpler than the demands of real live social situations.
    Ecological Validity-
    In this study there wasn’t much ecological validity because some of the participants were tested in a lab in a University. This isn’t something that people go through usually therefore this doesn’t have much ecological validity.
    Ethics-
    This study was ethical considering that everyone knew what was going on, they knew that they were in a study. Also they weren’t asked to do anything that would negatively affect them or anyone else. They study was pretty ethical.

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    5:54 pm
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    5:50 pm

Thursday, April 26

  1. page Schachter and Singer - Period 2 edited This is the space for information on Schachter and Singer's Study on Adrenaline and Emotion. Rele…
    This is the space for information on Schachter and Singer's Study on Adrenaline and Emotion.
    Relevant Background information:
    Schachter's Cognition-Plus Feedback Theory
    {Picture_1.png}
    - A stimulating event happens
    - Cognitions are used to interpret the meaning of our physiological reactions to the events
    - We experience feelings and then decide what they mean
    Aim:
    To test the two-factor theory on emotion
    Hypothesis:
    1. If a person is physiologically aroused & does not know the cause of this arousal, then he will try to find a reason for that feeling. He will label the feelings according to the cognitions available to him at the time.
    2. If a person experiences a state of arousal for which he has an explanation then he has no need to label his feelings.
    3. If a person is in a situation which should make him feel a certain way, but is not physiologically aroused, he will not feel any emotion.
    Participant Group:
    - 184 male college students taking introductory psychology classes at Minnesota University
    - They received extra credit for participating in the study
    Research Method: Lab experiment
    Variables:
    Independent Variable- Injected adrenaline or placebo, information given, the situation the subjects were placed in
    Dependent Variable- Emotions (Observed & Reported)
    Procedure Method:
    What type of data was collected? Qualitative and Quantitative
    Procedure:
    1. The participants were told they would be injected with suproxin, a vitamin that effects vision, although no such thing exists. The participants were actually being injected with a placebo saline solution or adrenaline.
    2. There were three different groups in the experiment that were given three different types of information
    - The first group was told the correct side-effects they would experience
    - The second group was told misinformed and told they would experience a dull headache and numbness
    - And the third group received no information at all
    3. After the injections the participants waited in another room with one other subject. This subject was actually a confederate or stooge, who behaved in a certain manner (angrily or euphorically)
    The misinformed group was not used in the anger conditions
    4. Two independent observers observed the participants from a one way mirror. The categorized the behavior into four categories.
    1. Joins in
    2. Initiates new activity
    3. & 4. Subject ignores or watches confederate
    The two independent observers agreed on 88% of the items
    4. The researchers also gave the participants a self-report questionnaire. They told the participants that the questionnaire was to determine if there were any other factors that could effect vision. There were questions on the questionnaire that asked the participants how happy or irritated they felt, there were also control question to see if the participants experienced
    Results: The adrenaline misinformed and adrenaline ignorant group reported being happiest. This is because they experience the effects of adrenaline, and having no explanation for the bodily arousal, they attributed the feelings to happiness. The anger self-report failed, most participants reported positive feelings, Schacter and Singer attribute this to the fact that they were students eager to please their professor.
    - Subjects who were misled or uniformed about the injections side effects behaved similarly to the confederate. However subjects who knew what to expect, did not show emotions mirroring the confederate.
    Strengths:
    Weaknesses
    Ecological Validity
    Ethics

    (view changes)
    4:49 am

Tuesday, April 24

  1. page Mann, Vrij, Bull - Period 1 edited Mann, Mann, Vrij and ... High Stakes Liars19-- Liars {man_in_prison.jpg} Background Inf…
    Mann,
    Mann,
    Vrij and
    ...
    High Stakes Liars19--Liars
    {man_in_prison.jpg}

    Background Information:
    Vrij and Mann wanted to know of a difference between lying in a "real life setting" and in an "experimental situation".
    ...
    High level of ecological validity.
    Ethics:
    {Lies.gif}
    (view changes)
    3:05 pm
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    3:05 pm

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